The Schengen Agreement Was Written To Regulate

The ENP can be criticised for its focus on security and not on economic development. The priority seems to be to protect the external borders against immigration and terrorism, which can blind the EU to human rights violations. Indeed, the EU has neighbouring agreements with Egypt, Tunisia and Libya. The Arab Spring has focused on human rights violations in these countries and on the fact that the EU is not really strict in respecting common values such as democracy and the rule of law. Clear rules govern when and how a Schengen country can temporarily reintroduce border controls. Until recently, these reintroductions were generally used for predictable events such as major sports competitions or political meetings: Portugal, for example, conducted border controls for the NATO summit in Lisbon in 2010 and Denmark at the UN climate change conference held in Copenhagen in 2009. An announcement from Iceland cites « the participation of MC Hells Angels in the inauguration of the Icelandic motorcycle club in Reykjavik » as the reason for two days of checks in Iceland in 2007. Such checks last only a few days and are planned well in advance. In September 2011, the Commission proposed an amendment to the CBS and called for more « EU-based governance » to assess the implementation of the Schengen rules.

The Commission has proposed that Commission experts carry out announced or unannounced visits to border crossing points in order to assess the implementation of the Schengen rules. Therefore, it would be decided to re-establish border controls at EU level and not at Member State level. [32] On 7 June 2012, Interior Ministers reached an agreement granting national governments the right to re-establish internal border controls in the event of an unforeseen emergency, without the consent of the Commission or Parliament. [33] Differences of opinion between Member States led to an impasse over the abolition of border controls within the Community, but in 1985 five of the ten Member States at the time – Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany – signed an agreement on the phasing out of common border controls. The agreement was signed on the princess marie-astrid boat on the Moselle, near the city of Schengen, Luxembourg,[5] where the territories of France, Germany and Luxembourg meet. Three of the signatories, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, had already abolished common border controls within the framework of the Benelux Economic Union. [Citation required] The original 1985 agreement is brief, only 33 articles, and deals mainly with the issue of opening internal borders, while the long 1990 convention sets out a wide range of rules to strengthen external borders. Several other instruments have been adopted by EU regulations since 1985. The main changes to the agreement (at least since Iceland became part of the agreement) are the adoption of the Schengen Borders Code and the Visa Code.